Pulmonary mucormycosis developed during acute myelogenous leukemia and successfully treated by surgical resection before blood stem cell transplantation

Kentaro Miura, Nobutaka Kobayashi, Ichiro Ito, Nozomu Uematsu, Toshimitsu Ueki, Yuta Nakano, Hikaru Kobayashi

Abstract

Pulmonary mucormycosis is relatively rare and occurs in immunosuppressed patients, for example, individuals with hematologic malignancies such as leukemia. As pulmonary mucormycosis increases rapidly and is often fatal, appropriate treatment including surgical resection is necessary. We report a patient with pulmonary mucormycosis and acute myelogenous leukemia for which antifungal drugs were invalid. After rapid surgical resection, the patient was administered a peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. In conclusion, we emphasize that patients with pulmonary mucormycosis undergoing leukemia treatment should be considered for rapid surgical treatment if the infected lesion is limited, as overcoming this acute infection increases their chance to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and potential for long-term survival.